Bissau is a city and a municipality in Jhunjhunu district in the state of Rajasthan, India. Bissau is another town of fluctuating fortunes. Its original name was Vishala Jat Ki Dhani. Keshari Singh, son of Thakur Shardul Singh of Jhunjhunu, got this village in Jagir. In it, Keshari Singh constructed a war Fort and a defensive boundary wall for defence with four gates in each direction.He named it Bissau in 1746 AD. Keshari Singh belonged to the famous Panchpana or five sons of Thakur Shardul Singh in Shekhawati. The rulers of Bissau belong to the Bhojraj ji clan of Shekhawats and are the descendants of the famous ruler Maharao Shekha who was the son of Rao Mokal ji, a grandson of Maharaja Udai Karan of Dhundhar.
Bissau,founded in 1746, is a princely Mamlaguzar thikana of the Jaipur State . There were originally 16 Mamlaguzar thikanas which consisted of the most prominent families of the Jaipur State. Most were closest to the King and his family, others were extremely prominent and possessed their own army and served directly under Mughals in Middle Ages. At present only 9 Mamlaguzar thikanas hold the gaddi in Jaipur Durbar (as compared to the earlier 16). The Mamlaguzar thikanas had special privileges in the Jaipur Durbar; the Maharaja had to rise for the Mamlaguzar Sardars, they were allowed to wear all their ornaments and were allowed to carry their swords in the Jaipur Durbar, whereas the rest of the Jaipur thikanas were not allowed these privileges.
Bissau, till today is known for its brilliant rulers and fierce warriors of the medieval era of Rajasthan. Probably, the most famous ruler of Bissau was Thakur Shyam Singh of Bissau, who was considered as one of the most renowned warriors of his time. He fought many successful battles against the Jaipur State and the British with the help of French mercenaries. He also maintained close ties with Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab. Thakur Suraj Mal of Bissau, father of Shyam Singh, constructed the Surajgarh fort in 1778. He was an outstanding warrior and died valiantly in the Battle of Tunga against the Marathas led by Mahadaji Scindia. In 1919, Thakur Vijay Singh of Surajgarh adopted Thakur Raghubir Singh of Bissau, thus, uniting both the thikanas. Bissau then became the third largest thikana in the Jaipur State after Khetri and Sikar.